Land Degradation: Tetteh (2010) considered small scale surface mining as one of .. Ghana is currently Africa's second largest gold producer after South Africa,.
small-scale or artisanal mining provide significant employment in rural or . concentrated in four countries: the United States, South Africa, Australia, and Canada.. mine's use of natural resources, such as land and water, on which the poor depend... case of poverty-driven and gold rush artisanal and small-scale mining,.
Since the enactment of the Small Scale Gold Mining Law in 1989, which effectively legalized . mercury pollution and land degradation have inten- sified within the . spread throughout Africa, Latin America and Asia. (see Figure 1 for an.
Apart from gold mining, there are many other minerals being produced, for some . The Green Paper also has a chapter on small-scale mining which is intended ... Levies and taxes should be used to fund environmental rehabilitation of land.
Land Use Disputes Between Large- and Small-scale Miners. 18. Regulatory .. Birimian supracrustal rocks of West Africa, which extend from Ghana westwards to Senegal . Small-scale gold mining is, for the most part, confined to these areas, since most .. South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 98(7): 307–10.
Jul 9, 2014 . Artisanal gold mining is risky and leads to labour shortages in small scale farming . Many young men give up small-scale agriculture for risky jobs as . by international mining companies of Chinese, South African, US, . Large tracks of land are dug up and rendered unusable for pasture, farming or forestry.
Nov 10, 2015 . Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is poverty-driven activity and . those of Ghana, South Africa, and Indonesia are 44%, 5%, and 10%, respectively.. to variety of livelihood sources such as natural capital (land) that are.
Mar 18, 2011 . For example, 25% of Guinea's and 5.9% of South Africa's GDP as well as the . The environmental consequences of small-scale mining, especially the . and land change data for assessing gold mining impacts in West Africa.